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segunda-feira, 1 de julho de 2019

Meus Urls e Tags

https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2016/04/uma-breve-historia-da-anatomia.html
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2016/04/anatomia-geral-planos-e-eixos-do-corpo.html
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2016/04/anatomia-regional-do-corpo.html
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2016/04/anatomia-sistemica-do-corpo.html
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2016/04/anatomia-clinica-aplicada.html
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2016/04/terminologia-anatomica.html
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2016/04/posicao-anatomica.html
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2016/04/variacoes-anatomicas.html
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2016/04/a-pele-tegumento-comum.html
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2016/04/sistema-esqueletico-humano.html
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2016/04/articulacoes-classificacao-das.html
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2016/04/tecido-muscular-e-sistema-muscular.html
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2016/04/musculo-estriado-cardiaco.html
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2016/04/sistema-circulatorio.html
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2016/05/sistema-linfatico.html
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2016/06/sistema-nervoso.html
https://www.guiadoestudantefree.com/2017/05/sistema-nervoso-central-e-periferico.html















Brustwandmuskeln,
የደም ዝውውር ስርዓት,
نظام الدورة الدموية,
շրջանառու համակարգ,
Naviqasiya sistemi,
Zirkulazio Sistema,
সংবহনতন্ত্র,
сардэчна-сасудзістая сістэма,
သွေးလည်ပတ်မှုစနစ်,
cirkulatorni sistem,
кръвоносна система,
ರಕ್ತಪರಿಚಲನೆಯ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆ,
sistema circulatori,
қан айналымы жүйесі,
sirkulasyon System,
magazi System,
循环系统,
循環系統,
kweropa System,
රුධිර සංසරණ පද්ධතිය,
순환 시스템,
System Circulatory,
sikilasyon sistèm,
cirkulatorni sistem,
sîstema gera xwînê,
kredsløbssygdomme,
obehový systém,
obtočila,
SISTEMA CIRCULATORIO,
cirkulada sistemo,
vereringe,
circulatory System,
verenkiertoelimistö,
système circulatoires,
bloedsomrin,
Circulatory System,
sistema circulatorio,
System Cylchrediad,
სისხლის მიმოქცევის სისტემა,
κυκλοφορικό σύστημα,
રુધિરાભિસરણ તંત્ર,
Sistem System,
מערכת דם,
परिसंचरण तंत्र,
plawv System,
vaatstelsel,
keringési rendszer,
ọbara System,
סערקיאַלאַטאָרי סיסטעם,
sistem peredaran darah,
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM,
circulatory System,
Córas Imshruthaithe,
blóðrásarkerfi,
sistema circolatorio,
循環器系,
Sistem sirkulasi,
ប្រព័ន្ធឈាមរត់,
ລະບົບໄຫລວຽນໂລຫິດ,
systematis circulatorii,
asinsrites sistēma,
kraujotakos sistema,
Circulatory System,
циркулаторниот систем,
രക്തചംക്രമണവ്യൂഹം,
Sistem peredaran darah,
ra System,
Sistema ċirkolatorja,
Pūnaha circulatory,
रक्ताभिसरण,
Цусны эргэлтийн систем,
Circulatory प्रणाली,
sirkulasjons~~POS=TRUNC systemet~~POS=HEADCOMP,
دورانی سیسټم,
سیستم گردش خون,
Układ krążenia,
ਸੰਚਾਰ ਪ੍ਰਣਾਲੀ,
кан айлануу системасы,
Sistemul circulator,
сердечно-сосудистая система,
System Circulatory,
циркулаторни систем,
ho potoloha ha mali System,
گردش منڊل,
System wareegga dhiigga,
mzunguko System,
cirkulationssystemet,
System sirkulasi,
Системаи хунгузар,
ระบบไหลเวียน,
சர்குலேட்டரி சிஸ்டம்,
oběhový systém,
ప్రసరణ వ్యవస్థ,
kan dolaşım sistemi,
серцево-судинна система,
دوران خون کے نظام,
qon aylanish tizimi,
Hệ thống tuần hoàn,
System yegazi,
Isimiso sokujikeleza

sábado, 29 de junho de 2019

Isimiso sokujikeleza

Ihlelo lokukhambisa iingazi ithwala uketshezi wonke umzimba; Lakhiwa inhliziyo, imithambo yegazi kanye lymph. Imikhumbi inhliziyo futhi yeengazi yakheka ku inethiwekhi ezokuthutha igazi. Ngalesi simiso, inhliziyo iphampa igazi kulo lonke inethiwekhi enkulukazi yegazi emzimbeni. Igazi kuholela izakhi, umoya-mpilo futhi langcolile kanye ezitokisini.

izifunda semithambo

Imisipha yenhliziyo siqukethe kwakukhona amaphampu amabili ukuthi nakuba eduze, isenzo chungechunge, uhlukanisa ukugeleza izakhi ezimbili: izifunda noma circulations yamaphaphu futhi letindzala (Figure I.22A B). I-ventricle yangakwesokudla ushayela igazi deoxygenated ebuya kwegazi emaphashini ngokusebenzisa imithambo yamaphaphu. Carbon dioxide kushintshwa i-oksijini capillary yamaphaphu futhi ke igazi elinomoya-mpilo wenziwa musha ngu ngemithambo yamaphaphu kuya ATRIUM kwesokunxele inhliziyo. Lesi sifunda, kusukela ngo-ventricle yangakwesokudla, lidlula emaphashini bufike ATRIUM ngakwesokunxele, iyona yokujikeleza kwegazi eliya emaphashini . I-ventricle engakwesobunxele ushayela oxygen - igazi elinomoya ekufinyeleleni inhliziyo, kusukela yokujikeleza kwegazi eliya emaphashini, ngokusebenzisa imithambo letindzala (aorta, namagatsha alo), futhi kukhona exchange mpilo nezakhi for carbon dioxide e lonke yomzimba. I-oksijini esibi igazi ubuyela ATRIUM kwesokudla ngokusebenzisa emithanjeni letindzala (emithanjeni intela nemengamo yasenhla nemithombo yasenzansi). Lesi sifunda, i-ventricle engakwesobunxele kuya ATRIUM kwesokunxele iyona kwegazi.

Kwegazi empeleni siqukethe izifunda eziningi okufanayo ukukhonza ezindaweni ezihlukahlukene futhi izinhlelo zomzimba (Figure I.22C).


imithambo yegazi


Kunezinhlobo ezintathu yegazi: lemithambo emithanjeni capillary (Figure I.23). Igazi elivela inhliziyo ngaphansi umfutho ophakeme futhi silethwa umzimba uhlelo lemithambo branched enezindonga obukhulu. Ukusatshalaliswa yokugcina nemikhumbi, arteriole, thatha igazi elinomoya-mpilo ukuze ama-capillary. Capillary akha embhedeni capillary, lapho kukhona exchange oksijini, izakhamzimba, imfucuza kanye nezinye izinto nge uketshezi extracellular. Igazi ungena embhedeni capillary ye ama-venule mncane-ngabafaka, ama-capillary efana ezibanzi. Kuma-venule sokukhipha ukuzijova ngabo elincane ukuvula ukuzijova ngabo emikhulu. Ngemithambo emikhulu, okuyizinto yasenhla nemithombo yasenzansi vena cava, kuholele emuva igazi kahle nomoya-mpilo ukuze inhliziyo.

izitsha Iningi igazi sokuhamba kwegazi inezendlalelo ezintathu noma amajazi:

• Tunica intima , i liner kwangaphakathi kumiswa ungqimba elilodwa isicaba kakhulu amaseli EPITHELIAL, endothelium , kusekelwa izicubu zomzimba ezithambile zezinzwa. Capillary akhiwa kuphela yilo elingenamikhono, ama-capillary igazi futhi abe ulwelwesi ukwesekwa engaphansi
• ungqimba maphakathi , isendlalelo Lesisemkhatsini ehlanganisa ngokuyinhloko kwemisipha bushelelezi
• futhi i olwelwesini , emgodleni noma olwelwesini ezicutshini.
ukuze mina . 2 2 Aca le . I . kanye m a u s v a d a zukuze c ä le ô i ca ka ku s bo ba s u sc ukuze r , futhi ama ( c â ukuze ukuzefuthi e s kanye ne s futhi of s d a a O ngeke ) u futhi futhi kanye m ukuze s cr c a O NS s le ukuze r futhi i s kuyinto i c a . B . E s kanye m a u s v ad a r c a O ä le po ukuze l , futhi s futhi d a a s â ukuze ukuze s futhi ie s kanye ne s futhi e s lo m the ku s bo ba s bese kuyinto futhi . I s r c a ONS s le ukuze r futhi i s kuyinto i ca intando , n le futhi ity , lo th futhi futhi sbese m kuyinto i futhi d futhi u m r c t a nqunu le . C . U m futhi s kanye m ukuze mi s d a a s r ukuze u futhi le r c l the ç ã le i s kuyinto i can s i s futhi , n le futhi ity , futhi m a s r c the s pa ukuze kanye a s u futhi sfuthi kanye m le shall a s Gao s futhi isib NS s d a po . 

tun i ca okumaphakathi i a kuyinto le ma i s var i ave l . I rter i kubo, EV i ukuze futhiizitsha ukufunda NFAT i -cos kuthiwa i TS i n g u i ka l le ukujiya lokhu ungqimba ekabusha l zesenzo usayizi ka l inesikhala, bakhe noma g i i zo, futhi kule icala of arter injengoba, ngoba Quant i obophe var i Ave i s i izingalo kanye l isithombe i -CAS.

Imithambo

  I imithambo kukhona lo imithambo yegazi ehola igazi ngaphansi kwengcindezi kuqhathaniswa ephezulu (uma ziqhathaniswa vein okuhambisanayo) ezisekujuleni kwenhliziyo futhi ukuyibeka emzimbeni (Figure I.24A). Igazi ngemithambo yegazi of nokuncipha osezingeni. Ukuhlukaniswa ezahlukene imithambo kusekelwe ubukhulu jikelele, lemali isihlobo kwezicubu bakwazi ukubhekana nokuhlupheka noma imisipha kwabezindaba Tunica (Figure I.23), udonga ukujiya ngokuhlobene inesikhala futhi umsebenzi. Usayizi nohlobo imithambo akha continuum - okungukuthi, kukhona ushintsho kancane kancane izici morphological uhlobo olulodwa kwesinye. 
 
ukuze mina . 2 3 d i vas the SA Gian futhi le . pa Ede s d a ilo i ukuze le s a s a s futhi kuyinto m kuyinto s ukuze ach s n c is i c ad futhi futhi w ka , ngoba ada s UN i c a s. a m futhi the s u sc l lo , i- s futhi iku s kuyinto m pa Ede s i s a s d lo u futhi a s kuyinto a s a c pa vu le tfuthi s futhi kuyinto m m futhi n s i s a s ukuze futhi t , futhi uma ap futhi sfuthi d a ku c ada s kanye m futhi s d futhi futhi c lo . 

Kunezinhlobo ezintathu lemithambo:



• Esibanzi imithambo enwebekayo(Ukuqhuba imithambo) babe izinto eziningi nokunwebeka (imicu enwebekayo yezicubu izindwani) ezindongeni zabo. Ekuqaleni, lezi imithambo enkulu ukuthola okukhiphayo inhliziyo. Kuyaqina ivumela ukunwetshwa lapho bethola okukhipha inhliziyo we ventricles, ukunciphisa ukwehlukahlukana ingcindezi, kanye nokubuya kusayizi wayo phakathi ventricular Kufinyeta, ngalesikhatsi kuchutjekwa nekwenta ibenze igazi ukuze imithambo naphakathi nomfula. Lokhu kugcina ingcindezi ohlelweni lwemithambo phakathi Kufinyeta inhliziyo (ngesikhathi ukuthi ingcindezi ventricular lehla zero). Ngokuvamile, lokhu kunciphisa ukwehla komfutho wegazi lapho izinkontileka inhliziyo abese ephumula. Izibonelo kwemithambo emikhulu nokunwebeka kukhona le-aorta, imithambo esuka lwaleli yomthambo i-aorta (innominate, Umthambo subclavian futhi carotid Umthambo),

• Incazelo imithambo kwemisipha (imithambo abasabalalisi) baye izindonga ezakhiwe ngokuyinhloko bushelelezi imisipha Imicu yotshani ahlelwe ngendlela isiyingi. Amandla aso ukunciphisa ubukhulu bayo (vasoconstriction) elawula ukugeleza kwegazi izingxenye ezihlukahlukene zomzimba, njengoba kudingeka izimo (p. Isib., Umsebenzi, thermoregulation). I Kufinyeta onesigqi kwezingange zawo kwemisipha (noma ububanzi we Isikhala sayo esingaphakathi) kanye imbangela Rhythmic constriction kwesikhashana lumens e a ukulandelana okuqhubekayo, angena nasekusakazeni igazi ezingxenyeni ezihlukahlukene zomzimba. Imithambo okhethwe, kuhlanganise nalezo ebonwe odongeni umzimba nasemilenzeni ngesikhathi asike izidumbu zabantu, ezifana brachial noma femoral imithambo lingama naphakathi - obujwayelekile imithambo kwemisipha.

• Imithambo amancane arteriole babe lumens kuqhathaniswa emincane futhi izindonga awugqinsi kwemisipha. I degree of ukugcwaliswa imibhede capillary kanye nezinga wegazi ophakeme esikhathini isimiso semithambo yegazi ngokuyinhloko elawulwa yi-degree of tonus (ukuqina) e imisipha abushelelezi izindonga arteriolar. Uma ithoni mkhulu kunokuvamile, kwenzeka nomfutho wegazi ophezulu (kwenyuke blood pressure). Imithambo ezincane ngokuvamile abanalo amagama noma ukuhlonza ethize phakathi asike izidumbu zabantu, futhi arteriole ingabonakala kuphela lapho igqanyiswe ngokwengeziwe.

anastomosis (zokuxhumana) phakathi kwamagatsha amaningi i Umthambo ukunikela eziningana okwahlukile kungenzeka ukugeleza kwegazi uma ukuvimbela indlela evamile ngokuma kokucindezelwa yesifo ehlanganyelwe noma Ligation kuhlinzwa. Lapho isiteshi main occluded, iziteshi ozikhethela ezincane ngokuvamile ukwandisa ngobukhulu e esifushane, uhlinzeka kwegazi eseduze lecinisekisa igazi eligciniwe izakhiwo distal ukuze isimiso. Nokho, kuthatha isikhathi ukuhlinzeka iziteshi ukuvulwa uhlangothi; zingabantu ngokuvamile enganele isinxephezelo occlusion okungazelelwe noma Ligation. 

Nokho, kukhona izindawo, lapho kunyatheliswa eseduze ayikho noma singenele kahle esikhundleni isiteshi esikhulu. Imithambo kungukuthi anastomose ekhipha eduze imithambo kukhona ezikhumulweni kweqiniso (yokwakheka). I occlusion kwetheminali Umthambo iphazamisa igazi eligciniwe ohlakeni noma isakhiwo ingxenye ukuthi achelela. langempela imithambo esibulalayoukuphakela retina, isibonelo, lapho imiphumela occlusion ekubeni abe yimpumputhe. Nakuba akulona iqiniso ezikhumulweni lemithambo imithambo esibulalayo obusebenzayo (Umthambo anastomosis nge enganele) izingxenye usinika ubuchopho, isibindi, izinso, ubende, namathumbu; Lemisebenti ingaphindze ezitholakala inhliziyo.
ukuze mina . 2 4 futhi kuyinto c a d a futhi m a mina oa . ukuze kuyinto a s kanye futhi ku a s ada s n s po a m u futhi ico futhi m the ge i a d c a ç ã le pa r ukuze le s futhi a s ap ukuze futhi s i s kuyintoi c a s futhi futhi c kanye m u futhi pob r kanye kanye m the ge i le le s futhile s ap ukuze futhi s pa r ukuze lo a O ngeke , futhi s p c futhi futhi , le rm ad a r c a ç ã le i s kuyinto i c a . Futhi bo r a m futhi t futhi futhi ukuze m rfuthi s futhi ach s futhi n s ka ada s m a u m UN i co ukuze s a , c, le le rm futhikuyinto a s isikhangiso le aq i ,the s futhi ku s un le s of s kanye a s ukuze futhi t , futhi uma ap futhi s futhia m m the pa futhi s d futhi futhi ku s ukuze c lo pa vu le futhi s.



vein 

Ngemithambo ngokuvamile kuholele emuva igazi deoxygenated kusuka imibhede capillary ukuze inhliziyo, onikeza ngemithambo emnyama ukubukeka okwesibhakabhaka (Figure I.24B). Elikhulu emithanjeni yamaphaphu kukhona atypical ngoba kungaholela igazi elinomoya-mpilo kusuka emaphashini enhliziyweni. Uma kucatshangelwa aphansi blood pressure ohlelweni emithambo yegazi, izindonga (ngokukhethekile, abezindaba Tunica) ka ngemithambo kukhona ohlabayo kuka imithambo ohambisana (Figure I.23). Ngokuvamile, ngemithambo musa pulsate hhayi ukukhipha noma gush igazi lapho sectioned. Kunezinhlobo ezintathu emithanjeni osayizi: 

• I veinlets kukhona imithambo kulencane. Kuma-venule sokukhipha imibhede capillary nekuhlanganisa izitsha ezifanayo ukwakha emithanjeni emincane. Okubukwa ka ama-venule kudinga ukunwetshwa. Amancane emithanjeni owumthelela kukhona emithanjeni emikhulu lapho hlanganani ukwakha plexus emithambo yegazi , njengoba amaphiko lwaleli emithambo yegazi senyawo (Figure I.24B). emithanjeni Small ukuthola akunagama 

• I medium - emithanjeni obujwayelekile sokukhipha plexus pooling eyeqile ezihambisana imithambo ophansi. Esikhathini izitho zomzimba kwezinye izindawo lapho yesisindo okuphikisana ukugeleza kwegazi ezomhlaba emithanjeni babe valve emithambo yegazi , ama-valve yokwenziwa ezivumela igazi ligeleze liye enhliziyweni, kodwa hhayi ohlangothini reverse (Figure I.26). Izibonelo emithanjeni naphakathi zihlanganisa okubizwa ngokuthi emithanjeni olukha phezulu (emithanjeni cephalic futhi Basilica of izitho engenhla kanye emithanjeni kwemithambo emikhulu yenhliziyo kanye elincane nasemilenzeni engezansi) kanye emithanjeni ohambisana kokuthola igama elifanayo njengoba umfula elikulesi sihloko (Figure I.24B).

• I omkhulu emithanjeni zinezikhathi ezinkulu longitudinal bushelelezi imisipha izinyanda futhi okuthuthuke kahle ingubo yangaphandle. Isibonelo salokhu aphakeme vena cava.

Isibalo emithanjeni kukhulu kunenani imithambo. Nakuba izindonga izacile, ubukhulu bayo kunesabo ububanzi we Umthambo okuhambisanayo. Izindonga mncane ukunikeza ezinkulu umthamo ukunwetshwa, kanye emithanjeni ukwandisa lapho igazi ukubuya inhliziyo uvinjelwa kokucindezelwa noma ingcindezi zangaphakathi (isib, kulandela i- umoya kakhulu futhi ubambe umoya wakhe; .. Lona Valsalva iqhinga ). 
Njengoba ekhipha igazi enhliziyweni nelifakayo akha wesifunda, wayeyoba kulindeleke ukuthi isigamu umthamo wegazi kwaba ngo ekhipha igazi enhliziyweni nelifakayo ngesigamu. Nokho, ngenxa okukhulu ubukhulu kanye ukunwetshwa nomthamo ngemithambo ngokuvamile% 20 kuphela ukuba igazi imithambo kukhona, kanti u-80% atholakala emithanjeni. 
Nakuba, ukuze kube lula, ngokuvamile amelwe imifanekiso isehlane, emithanjeni avame ukuba kabili noma amaningi. Labo abalandela imithambo ezijulile - ohambisana emithanjeni - kaka them e inethiwekhi amagatsha okungajwayelekile (Figure I.25). Le nhlangano isebenza njengesiqinisekiso a umzimba ukushisa e counter, lapho lwemithambo yegazi efudumele lifudumeza cooler igazi emithambo yegazi e ukubuya kwakhe ovela ekupheleni abandayo ukuze inhliziyo. Ngemithambo ohambisana nesikhundla emgodleni semithambo fascia kuqhathaniswa ngesandla esiqinile kanye Umthambo elikulesi sihloko. Ngenxa yalokho, lapho umfula yandisa ngesikhathi ukusikwa inhliziyo, imithambo kukhona nokuzaca futhi isicaba, esiza ukushayela igazi emithambo yegazi ukuze inhliziyo - omunyefutha arteriovenous.
ukuze mina . 2 5 futhi ukuze vu le s . Futhi bo ukuze lo ukuze ilo i ukuze le s futhi ku s d a n co le C rr ukuba lo m a a s a s a s i s ed s, le s vfuthi ku s a s kanye a s emva futhi s futhi m kuyinto lo m the le i s a u i s v a s afuthi the futhi s u futhii- c pa vu le m m a ku kuyinto i a futhi m m the ubende NH ukuze ubone le sc a r um . 

Ngemithambo letindzala ziyahlukahluka ezingaphezu kuka imithambo, futhi anastomoses emithambo yegazi -, zokuxhumana wemvelo ngqo noma ngenye indlela phakathi emithanjeni ezimbili - kukhona njalo. Ukwanda sangaphandle khaba of the imisipha yohlaka ukuthi inkontileka ezingalweni nasemilenzeni, kuphela ngalezi fascia, licindezele emithanjeni, "zizosengwa" igazi kuze maqondana inhliziyo; nezinye (musculovenoso) futha emithambo yegazi (Figure I.26). valve emithambo yegazi uphazamisa amakholomu wegazi, ngaleyo ndlela ekunciphiseni ingcindezi ezingxenyeni eziphansi futhi uvumela emithambo yegazi ukugeleza kwegazi ku inhliziyo kuphela. ukuminyana emithambo yegazi ezenzeka izinyawo ashisayo futhi ukhathele ngemuva kosuku lomsebenzi ethathelwa ngu yokuphumula izinyawo esihlalweni ephakeme kunaleyo esiqwini (umzimba).


IZINWELE IGAZI 


Ukuze sizuze amaseli ukuthi zakha omzimba izicubu, umoya-mpilo nezakhi eyalo imithambo kudingeka ukushiya izitsha yenethiwekhi futhi bathuthele isikhala extravascular phakathi amaseli, isikhala extracellular (intercellular) lapho amangqamuzana aphilayo. Capillary ayimibhobho elula endothelial ukuthi ukuxhuma lwemithambo futhi izinhlangothi emithambo yegazi we ukuzungeza bese uvumele exchange of izinto nge uketshezi extracellular (ECF) noma interstitial. Capillary ngokuvamile zihlelwa emibhedeni capillary, kumanethiwekhi ukuxhuma arteriole futhi ama-venule (Figure I.23). Igazi lingena imibhede capillary ngokusebenzisa arteriole ezilawula ukugeleza futhi amuncekela ama-venule.

ukuze mina . 2 6 SC ve le sa . a O NS s u sc ukuze rfuthi s the s kanye a s ukuze izicathulo le c i lo m kuyinto le s shall a s futhi a s a spa r ukuze a s a c ukuba ru kanye kanye m futhi ç ã le ukuze lo a O kuthanda . futhi pa n s ã le futhi tfuthi n e le s futhi futhi s of s u sc a s u futhi e m kuyinto d ukuze l ukuzeintando sc i a u sc ukuze r futhi n ukuba m ukuze r ca kanye nezicathulo vukuze u futhi p l s lo Ayikho ukuba le u futhi r a ku ity .

Njengoba ukucindezela hydrostatic e arteriole amandla ukungena nokuwela wegazi embhedeni capillary futhi iphoqa esidayisa uketshezi olune-mpilo, izakhi kanye nezinye izinto igazi ngegazi ekupheleni embhedeni capillary (umfula) kuya izikhala extracellular, okuvumela exchange nge izicubu amaseli aseduze. Nokho, ulwelwesi lwama-capillary, okulula eliqinile ukuze plasma amaprotheni. The esezansi ekupheleni emithambo yegazi embhedeni, ingxenye enkulu yaleli izinkulumo ezazibekwa manje anokungcola ne-carbon dioxide - it is amuncwa sibonga igazi ingcindezi osmotic eyenziwe lokuhlushwa ephakeme ka amaprotheni ku capillary. (Nakuba kakade kahle, lesi simiso ibizwa ngokuthi umbono Starling. )

Kwezinye izindawo, ezifana iminwe, kukhona ukuxhumana okuqondile phakathi arteriole amancane ama-venule proximal ukuze imibhede capillary letiphakela ushise. Lezi zindawo yale miyalezo - anastomoses arteriolovenulares (arteriovenous) (AAV) - vumela igazi ukuba kudlule ngokuqondile ohlangothini lwemithambo kuse ecaleni emithambo yegazi we kwegazi ngaphandle kokudabula capillary. Isikhumba inezinto eziningi shunts AV, okuyinto ibalulekile ukulondolozwa ukushisa komzimba.


Kwezinye izimo, igazi sidlula imibhede emibili capillary ngaphambi kokubuyela inhliziyo; uhlelo emithambo yegazi ohlanganyela imibhede emibili capillary kuyinto uhlelo portal emithambo yegazi . Uhlelo emithambo yegazi lapho igazi elinomoya izakhi Idlula imibhede capillary wokugaya ukudla ukuze imibhede capillary noma sinusoids isibindi - the system isibindi portal - iyisibonelo esivelele (Figure I.22C) .

Isimiso sokujikeleza 

ukuqina kwemithambo yegazi | Ischemia futhi infarction
Okuvame kakhulu atholwe isifo senhliziyo - kanye nokuthola kuvamile asike izidumbu zabantu wezidumbu - ababhekene nazo emazweni asethuthukile kuyinto ukuqina kwemithambo yegazi leqembu lezifo libhekene ukuqina futhi ukulahlekelwa kuyaqina izindonga ekhipha igazi enhliziyweni. Indlela evamile, isifo sokuqina kwemithambo yegazi lihlotshaniswa ekuqongeleleni fat (ikakhulukazi cholesterol) ezindongeni ekhipha igazi enhliziyweni. Kukhona kumiswa idiphozi calcium atheromatous qwembe (atheroma) - noma ezindaweni ophuzi inyuka, wayenza lukhuni zimakwe phezu kobuso intima Tunica kwemithambo yegazi (Figure BI.8A). Ukuvaleka kwemithambo yegazi kanye ebusweni ngendlela engavamile kangangokuthi ulandele kungaholela thrombosis (kumiswa ihlule intravascular wendawo noma thrombus), okungaba occlude umfula, noma kwenziwe bungene egazini ukuvimba izitsha distal ezincane njengoba spool (ID Figure. 8b). S imiphumela atherosclerosis zihlanganisa ischemia (encishisiwe kwegazi uhlaka noma isifunda) kanye isilethikusebenza (necrosis sendawo izicubu noma isitho okubangelwa encishisiwe liningi igazi). Nale miphumela zibaluleke nakakhulu maqondana inhliziyo (ischemic isifo senhliziyo kanye isilethikusebenza), ubuchopho (stroke) nezingxenye distal yezingalo nemilenze (esibhibhayo). 


                   F r the 8


varicose emithanjeni

Lapho belahlekelwa kuyaqina yabo, izindonga imithambo buthakathaka. A vein buthaka dilates ngaphansi ukucindezela asekelayo ikholomu kwegazi ngokumelene amandla adonsela phansi. Lokhu kuphumela ukubukeka varicose emithanjeni - emithanjeni ngokungavamile esontekile osuke usuvulekile - wazibona kaningi emilenzeni (Figure BI.9). I varicose emithanjeni s abe caliper enkulu kunokujwayelekile, futhi-valve emithambo yegazi kukhona ezingasebenzi noma ubhujiswe ukuvuvukala. I ssim, kukholomu igazi eliphumayo ubheke inhliziyo okuqhubekayo, okwandisa ingcindezi ezindongeni buthaka futhi okwenza inkinga ka varicose emithanjeni. I varices nazo kwenzeka uma ukonakala kwemisipha fascia. I fascia ezingasebenzi akakwazi aqukethe ukunwetshwa imisipha ukuthi inkontileka; ngaleyo ndlela musculovenosa ukumpompa (musculofascial) asiphumeleli.



Figure BI.9



Amaphuzu asemqoka okunikeza

UHLELO Sokujikeleza

Ihlelo lokukhambisa iingazi siqukethe inhliziyo nemithambo yegazi - lemithambo emithanjeni capillary. ♦ I s ekhipha igazi enhliziyweni nelifakayo (kanye lymph) kufanele izingqimba ezintathu noma amabhantshi - Tunica intima, Tunica kwabezindaba ingubo yangaphandle. S ♦ Imithambo kukhona imicu enwebekayo yezicubu imisipha e nezindonga zayo ukuthi uvumele ngamandla egazi isimiso sokujikeleza kwegazi. S ♦ The emithanjeni babe izindonga ohlabayo kuka yegazi zihlukaniswa valve ukuvimbela backflow kwegazi. ♦ I-capillary njengoba amashubhu elula endothelial, zingabantu izitsha kulencane igazi ukwenza kube nokuhlobana phakathi kwemithambo ezincane (arteriole) kanye emithanjeni (ama-venule).

Lwezincwadi: 
  MOORE, kl - Anatomy ngamakhasimende THE CLINIC, 6ªED, 
GUANABARA Koogan 2011.